Saturday, 5 March 2016

Types of Feminism: Other

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Types of Feminism:

Libertarian and Egalitarian Feminism:
Liberal and Marxist Feminism:
Radical and Socialist Feminism:
Intersectional Feminism:
International Feminism:
Other Types of Feminism: This article

Author: Blaise Wilson

Other types of Feminism

Anarcha- Feminism
Anarcha-feminism is sometimes called Anarchist or Anarcho Feminism and combines anarchism with feminism by supporting the concept of decentralization and free association. It is often associated with Radical Feminism due to the extreme nature of their demands for society to be fundamentally changed, but do not wish to replace it with a socialist structure like Socialist Feminism. It is based on the work of Emma Goldman [26].

Amazon Feminism
Amazon Feminists reject the assertion that women should play the part of a passive, weak and physically helpless person. They focus on physical equality, with many Amazon Feminists going as far as rejecting the evidence that women are less physically capable then men [1, 2, 3].

Birth Feminism
Birth Feminists encourage women to empower themselves through research in order to make informed decisions during pregnancy and labour, with particular emphasis on personal responsibility for choice and health [4]. However, there has been some criticism highlighting that birth often doesn’t go to plan, and events happen outside of the women’s control which may make the woman feel even more traumatised if her birth doesn’t go as she envisioned [5].

Care Focused Feminism
Care Focused Feminists consider the stereotypical women’s capably for caring for others as a strength, than a human weakness. They believe that justice is masculine and must be balanced with feminism care [6].

Cultural/ Difference/ Uniqueness/ Essentialist Feminine Feminism

Often seen as opposing Socialist Feminism, Cultural Feminists promote a women-affirming culture, arguing men and women are different biologically, but should be equally valued [1, 3 7]. They believe that the world is current encouraged to be too masculine, and there should be more balanced towards the feminine [3, 8].

“Cultural feminists believe that because of these differences, if women ruled the world there would be no more war and it would be a better place. Essentially, a women's way is the right and better way for everyone. Western society values male thought and the ideas of independence, hierarchy, competition and domination. Females values ideas such as interdependence, cooperation, relationships, community, sharing, joy, trust and peace. Unfortunately, says the cultural feminist, these ideas are not valued in contemporary western societies” [9]

They have been criticised for being separatists and trying to keep women’s music, art and studies segregated from men [7]. Another criticism is Cultural feminism is hugely sexist, promoting the ideas of male and female as stereotypes and judging based on these assumptions, such as claims like the ‘women’s way is the best way’ [0, 3].

Some feminists that fall into this branch believe the difference between men and women are so vast that men could not possibly understand, nor represent women [10].

They’re ideology closely mimics Radical Feminism as is sometimes conflated as the same thing, this could be viewed as a sub-category of Radical Feminism [10].

Eco/ Environmental Feminism
Ecofeminsits see an analogy between the perceived oppression of women by men to the harmful domination and rape of the environment by male dominated cultures. They even go as far to claim that women are inherently more one with nature, and thus the natural protectors of it, implying men are the natural destructors [1, 3, 9, 10, 11].

Erotic Feminism
Erotic Feminists link eroticism to life-giving, which they claim is inherently opposed to war and thus is distinctly feminine [3].

Existentialist Feminism
Derived from the teachings of Simone de Beauvoir who advocated that women are not always powerless and do not need to be dependent on men [12]

Feminizi Feminism
There have been some comparisons between some Feminist’s tactics and the Nazi’s treatment of Jews leading up to the holocaust, for example the dehumanization of men. These those who use these tactics have been termed Feminizis [13].

However, there are some radical feminists who have embraced this term and attempted to make it their own [1].

French Feminism
French thinkers such as Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Simone de Beauvoir, Monique Wittig, and Hélène Cixous influenced Feminism after the 1970s by adding a philosophical dimension to feminist theory [1].

Gender or Woman’s Studies Feminism
Courses and university degrees are available in Gender and Woman’s Studies. These are interdisciplinary courses that centre on gender identity often covering topics of sexuality, literature, language, geography, history, political science sociology, cinema, media studies, human development, law, medicine and so forth. They generally puts forth that gender is a social construct and concentrate on the study of privilege and power [14, 15, 16].

These courses have been accused of promoting propaganda and indoctrination [17], however, those who have invested vast amounts of time, effort and money into them may find themselves personally invested in the teachings [0].

Islamic Feminism
Islamic Feminists or ‘Musawah’ (equality in Arabic) [18] work within the framework of the Qur’an to achieve a more equal interpretation for the Muslim faith. They concentrate on the grey areas that could have many meanings but are currently skewed towards a patriarchal interpretation. Examples including how much a women should cover herself, the laws banning women from driving (in Saudi Arabia), all the way to domestic violence and issues around rape. They do not wish to make fundamental changes to their faith, but work within Islamic values [18, 19, 20, 21].

Moderate Feminism
Moderate Feminists are those who push for feminist ideas and equality for women, but don’t call themselves feminists. The Moderate Feminist label is thrust upon them, rather than being voluntarily taken [1, 3, 22]. This may be due to agreeing with some of the Feminist campaigns, but not wanting to be associated with the negative connotations that Feminism has become linked too [0].

Pop Feminism
Pop Feminists focus on ‘girl power’ and the portrayal of women’s empowerment within the media, often as caricatures such as the Spice Girls, Powerpuff Girls, She-Ra, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Charlie’s Angels [1].

Psychoanalytic Feminism
Psychoanalytic Feminists based their theory on the works of Jaques Lacan and Freud. They postulate that women born into a patriarchal society only have a masculine perspective as a point of reference and due to this “masculinity in women’s heads” [10] women have never truly experienced what is it to be female [1, 10. 23].

Psychoanalytical Feminist solutions include women re-assessing their own worth, the celebration of womanhood and femininity, women-only spaces, a redefinition of sexuality, breaking their dependence on men, and developing new concepts and language [10].

Separatist Feminism
Separatist Feminists advocate for the segregation of the genders, some of whom go as far as to spell ‘women’ as ‘womyn’ to remove the link to ‘man.’ Separation could be physical, emotional, psychological and/or spiritual [1].

Tumblr Feminism
Tumblr Feminists do not only reside on the microblogging site Tumblr, nor are all Feminists on Tumblr ‘Tumblr Feminists.’ The term Tumblr Feminists is a very negative term used to describe individuals who ostracize others for ideas they disagree with, have an inability to debate, have a lack of unbiased (or any) evidence for their assertions, and often have the childish behaviours of throwing a tantrum when others challenge their world view. [24, 25].


[0] Author assertion.

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